Responses of metabolic enzymes (GOT, GPT and LDH) in an Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods under short-term exposure


  • Basuvannan Rangasamy Bharathiar University
  • Anila P. Ashokan Bharathiar University
  • Mathan Ramesh Bharathiar University
  • Arul Narayanasamy Bharathiar University



Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are extensively manufactured due to their potential properties and applications in various fields such as biomedical, electrical and environmental. These particles are likely to reach the aquatic environment and may cause adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of different concentrations (1, 50 and 100 mg L-l) of TiO2 nanorods (NRs). The enzymatic activity of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured in the liver and muscle of an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala, under short-term exposure (96 h). The synthesised particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques before conducting the toxicity assay. The GOT and GPT activities were significantly elevated in both liver and muscle of fish treated with TiO2 nanorods (except 50 mg L-l in muscle for GPT). Similarly, the activity of LDH was also found to be elevated. The findings of the present investigation suggest that TiO2:NRs might have be absorbed, circulated, accumulated in liver and muscles of C. mrigala resulting in alterations in the enzyme activities. The results revealed that TiO2 nanorods induced alterations in GOT, GPT and LDH activities of fish at tested concentrations. The alterations of these enzymatic parameters can be useful for monitoring the environmental contamination of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in freshwater ecosystem.






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