The potential exposure and hazards of zirconia nanoparticles: A review
Zirconia is upon nanoparticles widely used in various fields due to its adequate properties, making it an inherent element in nanotechnology. The enhanced expansion of their usage is not harmonized at the same level with toxicological investigations, and little interest has been given to their potential toxicity. Some studies considered using zirconia nanoparticles as a biomedical material as safe, while others considered them unsafe and harmful for living organisms; indeed, toxicity mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species production were reported. Such ambiguous points refer to the critical need for more related studies. The contradictions in the published works require a detailed review to understand the toxicity aspects and mechanisms of Zro2 NPs, including their implications associated with human and environmental exposure. This review aims to summarize mainly all published studies on Zirconia and its potentials harmful effects on living organisms; and likewise contributes to the accession of knowledge and a better understanding of the subject.
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