Virgin Plastic Pellets May Cause Toxic Effects to Embryos of the Sand Dollar Mellita quinquiesperforata: a Preliminary Study
Keywords:Additives, Ecotoxicology, Leachate, Microplastics, Plasticizers, Toxicity
This study aimed to determine the toxicity of different virgin plastic pellets (Polypropylene with and without additive,
Polyethylene and Polystyrene) on embryos of the sand dollar Mellita quinquiesperforata. Toxicity tests were carried out with
each pellet’s type. Adult individuals were collected at Itararé Beach (São Vicente, SP, Brazil) and gametes were obtained by
osmotic induction. Elutriates (200 ml of each pellet type in 800ml filtered seawater, agitated for 5 min and kept equilibrating
for 10 days) were prepared. The tests were conducted in glass test tubes, with 4 replicates per treatment. The results were
analysed by the generalized mixed model with Negative Binomial distribution (p ≤ 0.05). Ratio Rate (RR) was calculated,
to determine significant differences of the abnormal larval development between treatments and control (AIC = 548.9; X2
= 126; p < 0.001). All pellets’ elutriates induced significant toxicity, and the presence of abnormal larvae was 3 to 4 times
higher than in the control (RR = 3.13 - 4.06). Our results demonstrate that virgin pellets represent a potential threat for Mellita
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