Single and mixture cytogenetic effects evaluation of atrazine and glyphosate herbicides at environmentally relevant concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem cells
Keywords:Chromosomal abnormalities, Ecotoxicity of mixtures, Micronucleus, Nuclear abnormalities, Pesticides
The mixture of pesticides is employed to obtain other mechanisms of action on target organisms. The herbicides atrazine and glyphosate are used worldwide to control weeds in agricultural crops, and their indiscriminate use results in their constant presence in the environment. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential, the presence of chromosomal aberrations and nuclear abnormalities, and the frequency of micronuclei of active ingredients and commercial formulations of the herbicides atrazine (AT = 2 and 25 μg L-1) and glyphosate (GF = 65 and 160 μg L-1) isolated and in mixture (MIX = 2 + 65 and 25 + 160 μg L-1). Allium cepa root meristem cells were used as the test organism to evaluate environmentally relevant concentrations. Treatments containing the herbicides inhibited the mitotic index (ATAI2: 9.40 ± 1.36; GFAI65: 8.58 ± 1.10; MIXAI2+65: 6.99 ± 0.57; GFAI160: 9.77 ± 1.08; ATCOM25: 7.40 ± 1.38; GFCOM160: 8.26 ± 0.79) and showed chromosomal aberrations and nuclear abnormalities (ATAI2: 0.85 ± 0.17; ATCOM2: 0.97 ± 0.18; GFCOM65: 1.00 ± 0.18; MIXCOM2+65: 1.09 ± 0.25; ATAI25: 0.82 ± 0.17; GFAI160: 0.87 ± 0.23; MIXAI25+160: 0.95 ± 0.19; ATCOM25: 0.67 ± 0.19; MIXCOM25+160: 0.80 ± 0.25), indicating the cytotoxic/genotoxic potential of these herbicides. Mutagenic effects were seen in the mixture of the active ingredients of the herbicides at the lowest concentration tested (MIXAI2+65: 0.70 ± 0.57). These results indicate that the isolated herbicides and their mixture directly affect the genetic material. Therefore, we suggest reviewing the acceptable limits of these herbicides in the environment, emphasizing the importance and care required for properly handling these products to minimize environmental and human health risks.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright © 2006 ECOTOX-Brasil
Copyright notice: It is a condition for publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not yet been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that copyright for their article is transferred to the Sociedade Brasileira de Ecotoxicologia (ECOTOX-Brasil) if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute articles, including reprints, photographic reproductions or any other reproduction of a similar nature, including translations. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission of the publisher.
Notice: While every effort is made by the EEC, editors and editorial board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinions or statements appear in this journal, they wish to make it clear that the contents of the articles and advertisements published herein are the sole responsibility of the contributors or advertisers concerned. Accordingly, the EEC, the editorial board and editors and their respective employees, officers and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.