PARTITI POLITICI A ORIENTAMENTO RELIGIOSO NELLE DEMOCRAZIE PLURALISTICHE EUROPEE: PROFILI PROBLEMATICI E STRUMENTI DI REGOLAZIONE

Autores

  • Maria Chiara Locchi Ricercatrice di Diritto Pubblico comparato, Università degli Studi di Perugia.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14210/nej.v26n1.p02-24

Palavras-chave:

Partiti politici a orientamento religioso, democrazia pluralistica, libertà di associazione.

Resumo

L’articolo si interroga sulla possibilità, per le democrazie costituzionali europee, di adottare discipline giuridiche restrittive nei confronti dei “partiti a orientamento religioso”, o di partiti laici che ricorrono ad argomenti religiosi in funzione di mobilitazione ideologica, posto il carattere fondamentale della libertà di espressione e di associazione politica in un contesto segnato dal principio democratico e da quello del pluralismo.

Referências

ÁDÁM, Zoltán: BOZÓKI, Andras. ‘The God of Hungarians’. Religion and Right-Wing Populism in Hungary. MARZOUKI, Nadia; MCDONNELL, Duncan; ROY, Olivier (eds.). Saving the People. p. 146.

ÁDÁM, Zoltán: BOZÓKI, Andras. State and Faith: Right-wing Populism and Nationalized Religion in Hungary. Intersections. East European Journal of Society and Politics. 2 (1), 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17356/ieejsp.v2i1.143

ALBERTAZZI, Daniele; McDonnell, Duncan. Populists in Power. London: Routledge. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315725789

BHARGAVA, Rajeev. India’s Secular Constitution. HASAN, Zoya; SRIDHARAN, Eswaran; SUDARSHAN R. (eds.). India's Living Constitution: Ideas, Practices, Controversies. London: Anthem Press, 2002.

BHARGAVA, Rajeev. What is Secularism? BHARGAVA, Rajeev (ed.). Secularism and Its Critics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

BLIGH, Gur. Defending Democracy: A New Understanding of the Party-Banning Phenomenon. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law. 46/2013.

BORNSCHIER, Simon. The New Cultural Divide and the Two-dimensional Political Space in Western Europe. West European Politics. 3/2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01402381003654387

BOURNE, Angela K.; CASAL BÉRTOA, Fernando. Mapping ‘Militant Democracy’: Variation in Party Ban Practices in European Democracies (1945-2015). European Constitutional Law Review. 2/2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1574019617000098

BRUBAKER, Rogers. Between Nationalism and Civilizationism: The European Populist Moment in Comparative Perspective. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 8/2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2017.1294700

BUGARIČ, Bojan. Central Europe’s descent into autocracy: A constitutional analysis of authoritarian populism, International Journal of Constitutional Law. 2/2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/moz032

CASONATO, Carlo. Minoranze etniche e rappresentanza politica: i modelli statunitense e canadese. Trento: Università degli Studi di Trento, 1998.

CATERINA, Edoardo. La metamorfosi della “democrazia militante” in Germania. Appunti sulla sentenza NPD del Tribunale Costituzionale Federale e sulla successiva revisione dell’art. 21 della Legge Fondamentale. DPCE. 1/2018.

CHERRIBI, Sam. Islam and Politics in Europe. ESPOSITO, John L.; EL-DIN SHAHIN, Emad (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 278-288. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195395891.013.020

CIANITTO, Cristiana. Quando la parola ferisce. Blasfemia e incitamento all’odio religioso nella società contemporanea. Torino. Giappichelli, 2016.

COHEN, Asher. The Religious Parties in the 2006 Election. Israel Affairs. 2/2007, p. 325-345. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13537120701204928

COLAIANNI, Nicola. Populismo, religioni, diritto. Questione Giustizia. 1/2019.

COLOMBO, Valentina. Political Islam and Islam in politics in Europe. European View. 12/2013, p. 143-144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12290-013-0253-7

DANCYGIER, Rafaela M. Dilemmas of Inclusion. Muslims in European Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23943/princeton/9780691172590.001.0001

DI GIOVINE, Alfonso (a cura di). Democrazie protette e protezione della democrazia. Torino: Giappichelli, 2005.

DI GREGORIO, Angela. Epurazioni e protezione della democrazia. Esperienze e modelli di “giustizia post-autoritaria”. Milano: Franco Angeli, 2012.

DIDERO, Maike. Muslim Political Participation in Germany: A Structurationist Approach. NIELSEN, Jorgen S. (ed.). Muslim Political Participation in Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748646944.003.0003

EVANS, Jonathan. Unlike Their Central and Eastern European Neighbors, Most Czechs Don’t Believe in God. Pew Research Center. 2017, http:// www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/06/19/unlike-their-central-and-eastern-european-neighbors-most-czechs-dont-believe-in- god/.

GALSTON, William A. Anti-Pluralism: The Populist Threat to Liberal Democracy (Politics and Culture). New Haven-London: Yale Univ Press, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12987/yale/9780300228922.001.0001

GATTI, Andrea. Il Parteiverbot e la nuova incostituzionalità a geometria variabile nell’ordinamento tedesco. Rivista AIC. 3/2017.

GRUDZINSKA-GROSS, Irena. The Backsliding. East European Politics and Societies and Cultures. 4/2014, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325414553886

HABERMAS, Jürgen. L’inclusione dell’altro. Studi di teoria politica. Milano: Feltrinelli, 2008.

HABERMAS, Jürgen. Lotta di riconoscimento nello stato democratico di diritto. HABERMAS, Jürgen; TAYLOR, Charles. Multiculturalismo. Lotte per il riconoscimento, Milano: Feltrinelli, 2008.

HABERMAS, Jürgen. Verbalizzare il sacro. Sul lascito religioso della filosofia. Roma-Bari: Laterza, 2015.

HAIDER QUERCIA, Ulrike. La rappresentanza elettorale delle minoranze nazionali in Europa. Milano: Cedam, 2013.

HALMAI, Gábor. The Evolution and Gestalt of the Hungarian Constitution. Ius Publicum Europeum. Volume 2. Constitutional Foundations, Heidelberg – work in progress, 2018.

HAYNES, Jeffrey (ed.). Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics. London-New York: Routledge, 2009, p. 211 ss. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203890547

HIEN, Josef. Unsecular Politics in a Secular Environment: The Case of Germany’s Christian Democratic Union Family Policy. German Politics. 4/2013, p. 441-442. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09644008.2013.853041

HUGHES, Melanie M. Electoral Systems and the Legislative Representation of Muslim Ethnic Minority Women in the West, 2000–2010. Parliamentary Affairs. 3, 2016, p. 1-21; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/pa/gsv062

KALYVAS, Stathis N. The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca-London: Cornell Univ Press, 1996. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7591/9781501731419

KALYVAS, Stathis N. Unsecular politics and religious mobilization, in KSELMAN, Thomas A.; BUTTIGIEG, Joseph A. (eds.). European Christian Democracies: Historical Legacies and Comparative Perspectives. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2003, p. 293-320.

KRATOCHVIÌL, Petr. Religion as a Weapon: Invoking Religion in Secularized Societies. The Review of Faith & International Affairs. 1/2019, p. 78 s. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1570760

LINDHOLM, Tore. The Strasbourg Court Dealing with Turkey and the Human Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: An Assessment in Light of Leyla Şahin v. Turkey. in DURHAM JR, W. Cole; TORFS, Rik; KIRKHAM, David M.; SCOTT, Christine (eds.). Islam, Europe and Emerging Legal Issues. Farnham: Routledge, 2012, p. 162.

LIPSET, Seymour Martin; ROKKAN, Stein. Cleavages Structures, and Voter Alignments: An Introduction. LIPSET, Seymour Martin; ROKKAN, Stein (eds.). Party System and Voter Alignments: Cross National Perspectives. New York: Free Press New York, 1967, p. 1-64.

LOCCHI, Maria Chiara. La disciplina giuridica dei partiti a orientamento religioso. Torino: Giappichelli, 2018.

MACKLEM, Patrick. Guarding the Perimeter: Militant Democracy and Religious Freedom in Europe. SSRN Electronic Journal. 20 August 2010, p. 2 s. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1660649

MALLOY, Tove H.; PALERMO, Francesco (eds.). Minority Accommodation through Territorial and Non-territorial Autonomy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198746669.001.0001

MCGRAW, Bryan. Faith in politics: religion and liberal democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511760365

MÉNY, Yves; SUREL, Yves. Populismo e democrazia. Bologna: il Mulino, 2004.

MOHSENI, Payam; WILCOX, Clyde. Religion and political parties, in HAYNES, Jeffrey (ed.). Routledge Hand- book of Religion and Politics, p. 218

MÜLLER, Jan-Werner. Militant Democracy. ROSENFELD, Michel; SAJÓ, András (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 1253 ss.;

NADIM, Marjan. Ascribed representation: ethnic and religious minorities in the mediated public sphere. MIDTBØEN, Arnfinn H.; STEER-JOHNSEN, Kari; THORBJØNSRUD, Kjersti (eds.). Boundary Struggles: Contestations of Free Speech in The Norwegian Public Sphere. Oslo: IMISCOE, 2017.

O’MALLEY, Eoin; WALSH, Dawn. Religion and democratization in Northern Ireland: is religion actually ethnicity in disguise? Democratization. 5/2013, p. 939-958. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2013.801259

OOMEN, Barbara; GUIJT, Joost; PLOEG, Matthias. CEDAW, the Bible and the State of the Netherlands: the struggle over orthodox women’s political participation and their responses, Utrecht Law Review. 2/2010, p. 158-174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18352/ulr.129

ORLANDI, Maria Angela. La «democrazia illiberale». Ungheria e Polonia a confronto. DPCE. 1/2019, p. 167-215.

OZZANO, Luca. Religion, Cleavages, and Right-Wing Populist Parties: The Italian Case. The Review of Faith & International Affairs. 1/2019, p. 65-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1570761

OZZANO, Luca. The many faces of the political god: a typology of religiously oriented parties. Religiously Oriented Parties and Democratization, Rivista Democratization. vol. 20, 5/2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2013.801253

OZZANO, Luca; CAVATORTA, Francesco (eds.). Religious Oriented Parties and Democratization. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315773766

PALERMO, Francesco; WOELK, Jens. Diritto costituzionale comparato dei gruppi e delle minoranze. Milano: Cedam, 2011, p. 51 s.

PEGORARO, Lucio. Para una clasificaión “ductil” de “democracia militante”. Revista vasca de administración pública. 2/2013, p. 191 ss.;

PITKIN, Hanna F. The concept of representation. Berkeley-Los Angeles, 1967, e A. Phillips, The Politics of Presence, Oxford, 1995.

RAMADAN, Tariq. Essere musulmano europeo: studio delle fonti islamiche alla luce del contesto europeo. Troina: Città Aperta, 2002

RAMADAN, Tariq. Noi musulmani europei. Roma: Datanews, 2008.

RASHKOVA, Ekaterina; SPIROVA, Maria. Party regulation and the conditioning of small political parties: evidence from Bulgaria. East European Politics. 3/2014, 318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21599165.2014.933413

ROY, Olivier. Beyond Populism. The Conservative Right, the Courts, the Churches and the Concept of a Christian Europe. MARZOUKI, Nadia; MCDONNELL, Duncan; ROY, Olivier (eds.). Saving the People. p. 186-187.

SAJÓ, András (ed.). Militant Democracy. Utrecht: Eleven Intl. Pub., 2014;

SAJÓ, András. Militant Democracy and Transition Towards Democracy. SAJÓ, András (ed.), Militant Democracy. p. 217.

SCUTO, Filippo. La democrazia interna ai partiti: profili costituzionali di una transizione. Torino: Giappihelli, 2017, p. 134-135.

SINNO, Abdulkader H., Muslim Underrepresentation in American Politics. SINNO, Abdulkader H. (ed.). Muslims in Western Politics. Bloomington-Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2009.

SPIER, Tim; KLEIN, Markus. Party membership in Germany: rather formal, therefore uncool?. VAN HAUTE, Emilie; GAUJA, Anika (eds.). Party Members and Activists, London-New York: Routledge, 2015.

STAFFEN, Marcio Ricardo. Entre a superlegalidade e a teologia política: consequências da atuação das instituições religiosas no Programa Nacional de prevenção primária à corrupção no Brasil e nas “10 medidas de combate à corrupção”. Revista Estudos Institucionais, Rio de Janeiro, v. 6, n. 2, p. 625-642, set. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21783/rei.v6i2.472

STANLEY, Benjamin. Defenders of the Cross. Populist Politics and Religion in Post-Communist Poland. MARZOUKI, Nadia; MCDONNELL, Duncan; ROY, Olivier (eds.). Saving the People. p. 109 ss.

TEITEL, Ruti. Militating Democracy: Comparative Constitutional Perspectives. Michigan Journal of International Law. 1/2007, p. 49 s.

TEMPERMAN, Jeroen. State-Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law. Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. Leiden: Brill, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004181489.i-382

TONIATTI, Roberto. Minorities and protected minorities: constitutional models compared. in BONAZZI, Tiziano: DUNNE, Michael (eds.). Citizenship and rights in multicultural societies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781474467919-016

TRANIELLO, Francesco. Democrazia cristiana. Enciclopedia delle Scienze Sociali. Roma. 1992, vol. II, p. 759-768.

TYULKINA, Svetlana. Militant Democracy: Undemocratic Political Parties and Beyond. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315767819

VAN KERSBERGEN, Kees. Contemporary Christian Democracy and the Demise of the Politics of Mediation, in KITSCHELT, Herbert; LANGE, Peter; MARKS, Gary; STEPHENS, John D. (eds.). Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 369-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139175050.014

VAN KERSBERGEN, Kees. Social Capitalism: A Study of Christian Democracy and the Welfare State, London-New York: Routledge, 1995;

VOLPI, Mauro. La nuova costituzione ungherese: una democrazia dimezzata. Questione Giustizia. 3/2012, p. 171-184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3280/QG2012-003014

ZAHALKA, Iyad. Shari’a in the Modern Era. Muslim Minorities Jurisprudence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316335321

Downloads

Publicado

2021-04-01

Como Citar

LOCCHI, M. C. PARTITI POLITICI A ORIENTAMENTO RELIGIOSO NELLE DEMOCRAZIE PLURALISTICHE EUROPEE: PROFILI PROBLEMATICI E STRUMENTI DI REGOLAZIONE. Novos Estudos Jurí­dicos, Itajaí­ (SC), v. 26, n. 1, p. 02–24, 2021. DOI: 10.14210/nej.v26n1.p02-24. Disponível em: https://periodicos.univali.br/index.php/nej/article/view/17548. Acesso em: 25 abr. 2024.

Edição

Seção

Artigos